3. L'intégration économique en Afrique: un processus en cours, Ressources naturelles et réalités géopolitiques de l’Afrique. | In an article entitled Natural Resources and Conflicts in Sub-Saharan Africa, in 2012 Roland Pourtier wrote that: "The world history of conflicts teaches us that they are always multidimensional; although there is no unambiguous determination, the question of the links between resources and conflicts nevertheless remains. However, despite its importance, the availability of wealth, in the form of natural resources, unfortunately does not automatically generate development, nor is it a sufficient development indicator. There is a disparity between rich and developed African countries and others that still suffer from poverty. When countries use such rents to support current consumption rather than to invest in new capital to replace what is being used up, they are, in effect, borrowing against their future. The economic and material causes are even generally hidden behind motives deemed nobler such as freedom, dignity or sovereignty. These resources are at the origin of many of the conflicts, tensions and manifestations of instability experienced by the continent. The Democratic Republic of Congo had filed a request to the United Nations to extend its continental shelf. per capita (US$) . China’s biggest investment on the African continent is in Namibia, where they have invested heavily in a mining company, producing uranium.
The 16 other African countries involved in the ranking are all in the category of countries with poor or catastrophic governance of natural resources: Nigeria (40th), Angola (41st), DR Congo (44th), Algeria (45th), Mozambique (46th), Cameroon (47th), South Sudan (50th), Zimbabwe (51st), Libya (55th), and Equatorial Guinea (56th).
This is the case in Africa where, even though a majority of conflicts have their roots in the rivalry surrounding natural resources, other causes have been identified apart from economic and wealth factors. Africa's natural resources are not naturally distributed across the continent. Transnational criminal gangs, mainly based in Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi, largely capture these funds.
Africa accounts for one third of the world's documented conflicts and the majority of them have a direct link to mining and oil production (Nigeria, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Angola, DRC and Sudan). The impacts of African natural resources on continental geopolitics differ depending on two major elements: - Natural distribution, which makes some countries more affluent than others; –Resource rich countries are defined as those with average rents from natural resources (excluding forests) that exceed 5 percent of GDP in 2006-2011 • Fragility and conflict –Defined as countries having either a harmonized average CPIA rating of 3.2 or less, or … Required fields are marked *. In fact, Namibia proudly holds the fourth place in the world as far as supplying uranium is concerned.
The availability and abundance of local wealth can be linked to separatist tendencies.
For example, Niger belongs to the top ten of the poorest countries, while it also has a significant number and variety of natural resources (e.g. In this area, the difference between politics and economics is very difficult to make.
Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window). Several countries cannot divest themselves of the idea that integration would imply that the most resource-rich countries bear the greatest burden of integration. The emphasis is on preservation rather than destruction, and long term development rather than short term gains. In this case it is better to talk about resources of African countries and not about African resources. North America Central America & the Caribbean Natural resources as levers for cooperation and integration. Being a naturally radioactive mineral, uranium is useful in generating nuclear energy, and yes, nuclear weapons. In Tanzania they have standard mines, constructed to enhance investment and development of their resources, but intelligently they have not forgotten to develop other areas of their economy as well. This high availability of wealth is a challenge for researchers because it has not led to the continent’s emergence, at least as an economic power, in absence of being a great power. Botswana has huge resources of gem diamonds, which is the main focus of its export. There are also marble, gemstones, coals, iron, gold, oil, gas, and iron. Apart from diamonds, the country is also leading in the coal production- that is not a course for celebration because most countries are turning away from coal. This desire to go beyond the fragmentation and infighting, which (as displayed by the actions of certain African leaders supporting inter-African solidarity and cooperation) is the glimmer of hope for an Africa that will occupy a place in the world bestowed to it through its wealth in natural resources. This does not obscure the economic reason; the strip of land in question is said to contain natural gas and mineral resources, each of which is seen as a lever for its economic development. Fragmentation and disparities in natural resources and their management. Tanzania is an African country that is rich in tanzanite, gold, diamonds, and silver. Moreover, Africa accounts for 24% of the world's agricultural land and one-third of the world's river basins, but only 9% of agricultural production. See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison, More rankings:
This disparity influences the positioning of African countries in the world. The principle is certainly confirmed by international law; in particular by resolution 1803 dated December 14, 1962 that provides that: “The right of peoples and nations to permanent sovereignty over their natural wealth and resources must be exercised in the interest of their national development and of the well-being of the people of the State concerned.”. Guinea is on of the richest countries in minerals in Africa, the African country that is rich in bauxite, the raw material from which aluminum is made. Cameroon's recovery of the peninsula prompted it to request the United Nations to reconsider its maritime borders with Equatorial Guinea in the area between the reclaimed peninsula and northwest of the island of Bioko, which is part of Equatorial Guinea. - The Nigeria-Morocco Gas Pipeline is another facet of cooperation: On December 3, 2016, Morocco and Nigeria entered into a partnership between their respective sovereign wealth funds to finance a gas pipeline project that would transport Nigerian gas along across the entire coast of West Africa to Morocco. This country has is the site of one of the largest underground mines in the world. Indeed, when Africa's natural wealth is taken into account, the entire continent appears to have enough resources to secure a good global positioning and to emerge from dependence towards interdependence. It is known for being a number one copper producer and supplier – it produces 77% of African copper. A 2009 report by the United Nations Environment Program suggests that at least 60% of intra-state conflicts over the last sixty years have been linked to natural resources. gold, iron, uranium, coal and oil). | Most minerals are found in the soil, making them a part of the topography of the environment. Top 10 Richest List, Interesting Rankings Hub. From this perspective, natural resources are linked more with conflict than with cooperation. - Continuous research on integration and cooperation among the continent’s states. This is a list of countries by natural gas proven reserves based on The World Factbook (when no citation is given). - Natural resources can, because of their abundance, incite foreign covetousness. |. During the various events throughout the course of the forum, it was necessary to keep in mind that the abundant and available African resources have not enabled the continent to truly develop, and that these resources are a serious source of crises and tension.
The real object of interest between France and Italy during the colonial period, and between Libya and Chad after independence, are the oil and uranium resources as well as the manganese that the area was deemed to contain. The following are indicative examples: - Aware that the contradiction between an identified availability of natural resources and a continent's non-emergence or even poverty situation is due to a lack of strategic vision in the governance of these resources, African countries have developed the Africa Mining Vision (AMV) initiative. Few countries have successfully managed to use their wealth of natural resources to build a resilient, diversified and competitive economy that benefits all citizens. More than the availability of resources, governance determines the positioning of African countries among their peers in the world. In the long run agriculture is better than mining, hydroelectricity is better than nuclear energy, and tourism is better than timber logging. Minerals (such as iron and copper) are often valuable resources that are extremely important to man in the ,making of the things that he needs, while some minerals (such as diamonds) are ornamental. Middle East South America However, a realization is emerging that the dysfunctions in the natural resources management, which are responsible for the continent’s precariousness, can only be overcome through joint efforts, continental solidarity, cooperation between states, and in particular South/South cooperation.